2 Opportunities for Goldsmiths Disciplines and Programmes
3 Recommendations for Goldsmiths
4 Engaging with the Indian Higher Education sector
5 Audit of Goldsmiths Departments existing India Initiatives
6 Audit of Goldsmiths College Wide Initiatives
7 Key issues emerging from the Audit of Goldsmiths Departments and College Wide Initiatives
8 Challenges to Entering the Indian market
9 UK Government Education Initiatives for India
10 UK Universities in India – Competition
11 UK India Skills Forum
1.1 Goldsmiths is uniquely placed to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the liberalisation of the Indian education sector and this report helps to identify the challenges and benefits for Goldsmiths and what it needs to do in order to realise these opportunities.
1.2 The report is based on one to one meetings with academic staff from the key disciplines, review of the existing papers, outlining thinking around its international activities and a report by the Warden on his visit to India where he held meetings with Chancellors in a number of Indian universities as well as the British Council.
1.3 Meetings were also held with a number of external agencies such as UK Indian Business Council, Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry UK (FICCI) and the Director of LSN Learning. The report also brings together the UK India Government initiatives for higher education, skills and training providers through the UKIERI and Leadership Foundation Network.
1.4 The report provides selected case studies of the approach taken by UK HE providers towards the Indian market and sets out the business case for engaging with the Indian Education sector based on the size, value, growth and opportunities.
2.1 Goldsmiths can establish a distinctive presence in India through its creative disciplines and programmes. The opportunities for institutional connections for Goldsmiths with India are in:
2.2 Goldsmiths can consolidate and formalise its existing relationships with higher education institutions such as Hyderabad University, Delhi School of Economics, and Centre for the Study of Developing Societies for the development of joint research and degree programmes in the social science disciplines such as Anthropology, Sociology and Psychology.
2.3 But in Goldsmiths, it is the creative disciplines which have the greatest potential for engagement with India, in particular Media and Communications, Institute for Creative and Cultural Entrepreneurship, Design, Drama and Art. The Indian government education institutions with culture and creative industries focus which offer the greatest potential for collaboration and partnerships for Goldsmiths include:
2.4 Furthermore Goldsmiths is uniquely placed to explore new opportunities with the growing number of new private institutions. This alignment will help to unlock new funding and flow of students for Goldsmiths. The established and emerging Indian corporate such as Tata, Bharati Airtel, Reliance Entertainment, Future Group, Infosys Learning Institute, Pearl Academy and Kingfisher have all developed their own modern corporate universities in order to ensure quality and employability. There is an opportunity to form partnerships with these corporate sponsored universities based around the innovative programmes offered by GS creative disciplines.
2.5 For example, MA Brand Development can be offered to Future Group who has set up their own Brand Development division, looking at Indian Mythology for innovative and highly creative approach to understanding the Indian consumer. They employ an in-house mythologist who draws on the Hindu epic tales from the Mahabharata and Ramayana to inspire and engage customers and employees. In the highly diverse and complex Indian society, internal and external marketing stories “won’t sink in unless they embody “collective heroism” and non Manichean values”. Other companies like TeamLease, RPG, L&T and ICICI are tying up with universities and premier colleges like Manipal University, IIMs to offer customised training programs.
2.6 The rapidly growing media and entertainment sector in India offers another opportunity for Goldsmiths to bring its unique quirky, edgy, brash, loud, interesting, different, radical ideas lead approach to learning to the growing cultural and creative sector in India. This is already led by a number of media and entertainment studios to set up their own academies for education and training and is ideal partners for Goldsmiths creative disciplines. They have the production experience, technical facilities, infrastructure and it seems access to money. Emerging institutions such as Whistling Woods International Film School, Toonz Entertainment, Idiom Design and Lalit Kala Academy are ideally suited for marketing the Goldsmiths MA’s in Design Education, Script Writing and Journalism and MAP programme.
2.7 India Institute of Technologies and Management (IIT and IIM) are being encouraged to diversify and expand their scope to work as full-fledged universities and to expand their academic reach to include the humanities and arts. There is an opportunity for Goldsmiths Computing, Design, Digital Studios departments to build partnerships with these cash rich institutions.
2.8 State government who are developing and investing in their regional culture and creative industries such as the Haryana State Government and Gujarat State Government are another source for new relationships for Goldsmiths to explore. Similarly, India’s emerging cities are seeing a booming investment in Education and Training including Pune which has more schools, colleges and universities than any other city in the world! Famous institutes like Pune University, Film and Television Institute of India are situated here and the city is positioning itself as the creative industries hub for animation and gaming. Ahmedabad, in Gujarat is the home of India premier institutions in the disciplines of communication (MICA), architecture (CEPT) and design (NID). Chandigarh Government is developing a state of the art multimedia and film city centre and fast becoming a fashion technology and designing hub. The other emerging cities with creative industries focus include Jaipur, Goa, Kochi, Indore and Nagpur.
2.9 The specific Creative Discipline programmes in Goldsmiths which offer good deal of potential synergy with India include:
3.1 Take very seriously the opportunities offered from expanding into the Education Market in India and align its strengths in the creative disciplines which offer new opportunities for collaboration, partnerships, programme development and student recruitment to realise these opportunities.
3.2 Expand its network of relationships to include working with Indian corporate, the education and training academies established by the Media and Entertainment Studios, Indian Institutes of Technology, State Governments and the emerging cities. This alignment could help to unlock new sources of funding for research, student exchange, and programme development.
3.3 Consolidate the network of academic relationships with India and leverage them for the benefit of the whole institution.
3.4 Develop an evidence based approach to its international activities which is informed by an analysis of the Indian Education market, challenges to entry and the opportunities for strategic and sustainable partnerships.
3.5 Allocate funds for exploratory work and train its staff to develop their skills to succeed in India.
3.6 Develop a more robust marketing and communications strategy for promoting the Goldsmiths brand in India through leveraging the alumni networks, academic relationships, bespoke events, seminars and conferences in India and UK.
3.7 Improve its internal and external communications; enable sharing of information and good practice across the departments and between academic staff and senior management on international strategy.
3.8 Join the government initiatives such as UK Indian Higher Education Forum led by UKIBC and UKT&I and to participate in the FICCI Higher Education Summit November 09, taking place in Delhi.
3.9 Put in place a minimal infrastructure which is resourced and centrally managed to develop its capacity to realise these opportunities.
4.1 The Indian education sector is on a path of exponential growth with both the government and the private sector playing a part in the “education revolution”. Today India’s education market is valued at US$40 billion and projected to reach US$70 billion by 2012 and is undergoing a major transformation with a surge in investment both local and international. The Indian government is currently pushing through the Foreign Education Providers Bill allowing for foreign direct investment in higher education to help reduce government expenditure. Under this bill, Foreign education providers would be given the status of “deemed universities” allowing them to grant admissions and award degrees, diplomas or certificates. The liberalisation will transform India’s education sector into an attractive and fast-emerging opportunity for foreign investment.
Potential Student Group
4.2 Foreign universities can leverage the opportunity of offering contextualised courses as Indian universities and institutions are lacking in this particular area. Goldsmiths primary customer for full time courses are likely to be urban middle-class youth whose families may not necessarily be able to afford a post graduate degree abroad, but would like to ensure that the youth have an appropriate postgraduate qualification that preferably offer an up to date curriculum, international exposure and better employment opportunities compared to a local college. The other customer for Goldsmiths is the middle class young working professionals who have completed a graduate degree or diploma, have work experience and seek one or more additional qualifications that are career relevant.
Parents and Society
4.3 The educational institutions’ brand therefore is important. When developing courses which are suitable for India it is important to understand the value of education which is seen as route to becoming not only more socially respectable and employable, but also marry-able. Parents are the primary funders of private education and the qualification of children adds to their social status. India’s middle class numbers around 300 million, representing 30% of the population, spread across 5,000 towns and cities. Education is their top priority among families, with 43% wanting their children to get a master’s degree. It is also worth remembering that middle-class parents are more likely to encourage students to study locally in order to keep the younger ones at home longer and enjoy the relative cost advantage. They will be supportive of exchange programmes or twinning programmes resulting in eventual local placements or employment in India.
Method of Engagement
4.4 The preferred method of engagement with India is through collaboration with private education and or education institutions where professional courses are offered in partnership with existing service providers who have widespread local presences. One of the more contemporary methods for foreign institutions attracting international students to the home country is under the “twinning” arrangements. Twinning is seen as cheaper option, as part of the programme is undertaken in the host country. The programme collaborations consist of joint-programmes and joint degree provision by the institutions of the home and host countries. Indian partners prefer to design programmes with the inputs received from the foreign institutions thereby making the arrangements highly cost effective. In this mode, Indian private partners prefer to collaborate when they get a brand name of a foreign university to award the degree. Another method of engagement which is working well in India is where faculty members from collaborating institution stay for long periods from one to three years and work together with the local faculty to develop courses and projects. Both the collaborating partners develop close relationships and learn a great deal from each other.
4.5 The UK government has recognised the importance of India’s growing education sector and have developed a number of initiatives to help position the UK higher education institutions and the many skills and training providers in this market.
5.1 Department of Media and Communications
The Department of Media and Communications at Goldsmiths is hugely successful and as the visit by the Warden to India showed there is substantial opportunity to position this department. There are considerable opportunities for the department to market its creative and innovative programmes to India which is only just beginning to develop critical thinking around the media explosion it has witnessed in just two decades. Goldsmiths can position itself as destination for this conversation and what is coming next.
There is an opportunity to work with academic institutions that specialise in film and media studies such as Jamia Millia Islamia and Sarai, Indian Film and Television Institute and with private training and skills development institutions like Toonz Entertainment and Idiom Design.
The new MA in Brand Development is sponsored by Brand Union and introduces students to the history of branding and the social, political and economic factors that have shaped its evolution as a communications practice. There is potential to link MA Brand Development programme with Idiom Design in Bangalore and Future Group based in Mumbai. Brand Union is owned by WPP, one of the first brand companies to locate in India. It would be worth leveraging the Brand Union and Goldsmiths connection to work with WPP in India.
Brand development and brand management is a growth area in India with the large corporate and Goldsmiths could develop links with the emerging corporate business schools such as Reliance Business School. Similarly there are opportunities to take this programme to the growing public sector services, non-profit branding, brand consultancies, media, design and technology companies, and state governments. Brand Development programme can also explore links with the emerging other Research Institutes in such as Sarai.
Currently MA in Brand Development do not have relationships with India but would like to look at visiting scholars and speakers, who might visit and give lectures to share their experiences and insights about brand development in India. They would like to explore relationships with India and China who are growing their own brands.
There is growing demand for script writing programmes in India as the film and television industry develops its international ambition. The lack of script writers is constantly sited as the weakest link of the Indian film industry. Goldsmiths MA Script Writing programme is ideally suited for mature students with experience of working in film and television industry and can be marketed to the large Media Studios such as Eros International, Studio 18, Reliance Entertainment, Sun Film and Television, UTV and Yash Raj Films to name but a few. They could be approached to provide scholarships and bursaries to sponsor Indian students to undertake this post graduate degree. The Script Writing programme can also consider links with Whistling Woods International Film School, set up by one of the leading Bollywood producers, based in Mumbai.
Media and Practice – MAP
MAP programmes are suitable for industry partners and higher education institutions. They have already developed bespoke programme in Lahore, Sao Paolo and Lagos through funding from British Council.
5.2 Institute of Creative and Cultural Entrepreneurship – ICCE
The MA in Creative and Cultural Entrepreneurship developed in partnership with Media and Communications, Drama, Design and Music could attract significant students, faculty exchange and research collaboration in India. ICCE MA programme is an ideal programme for India as it registers 19 % growth of its Media and Entertainment industries, generating $10 billion (projected to grow to $40 billion by 2020) to the economy achieved in less than two decades. The development of the creative industries is totally driven by the creative and cultural entrepreneurs. There is an opportunity to work with creative entrepreneurship networks such as Proto, X Media Lab, Games, FICCI Frames, state governments, emerging cities and corporate for the delivery of bespoke programmes which can be delivered in India as well as the MA in creative and cultural entrepreneurship.
The department has not done any research on what Indian institutions they can interface with or develop relationships. They would like to develop partnerships with ICCE for Research in particular looking at exploring new ideas for developing social entrepreneurship and to recruit more PhD students for the Cultural Policy programme. The other area they would like to offer is professional development of staff.
In order to take ICCE and the Arts Culture Policy Programme to India, Goldsmiths would need to be proactive and enable the department to research the opportunities, establish relationships and adapt the programmes that meet the needs of the partners. This is a good fit for India but it would require drive and ambition. If not, the danger is that the other universities who are more open and ready to meet half way, share risk and reward and will take the advantage.
5.3 Computing Department
The programmes developed by the Computing Department have huge potential for growth in India in particular their programmes around Computing and Art, Games and Entertainment and Social Media all growth areas in the Indian creative industries. The department has strong links with the UK creative industries and the major cultural institutions. They are strong on research and make strategic contribution to the thinking around creative industries. They are the only department which offers practice based PhD. Most of their students are from the UK and then London but ethnically broad based and a good mix of mature students. The department has strong links with Centre for Cultural Studies and Sociology and are co-developing programmes with Media and Communications.
The Computing Department do not have any networks into India but are interested in exploring student exchange programmes, joint degree, and research and faculty exchange. They did receive a visit from the Vice Chancellor of Hyderabad University who expressed interest in their approach to computer technology in a creative way. But there has been no follow up to the visit. They think a centralised resource that can follow up on such visits would be extremely helpful.
Goldsmiths Digital Studiosdescribes itself as the: “hub of radical experimentation, fundamental investigations and innovative practices, forging links between digital technologies and artistic practice. A crucible for original theories, new departures in the technological arts and pioneering, and commercially viable, sustainable software products, working closely with artists and digital media professionals – from the culture industries, film production, design consultancies, museums and galleries, interactive media content providers, software development houses, and hardware design laboratories – to explore and extend the use of today’s digital technology and to define and implement the art and design technologies of tomorrow”.Reference: Goldsmiths Website.
This is an exciting proposition for India’s digital media sector, the Indian Institutes of Design and Engineering. While arts, humanities and social sciences may be seriously underfunded in India, the cash rich Institutes of Technology and Engineering are not, and where the Computing Department and Goldsmiths Digital Studios would bring a unique approach to teaching these programmes.
The Indian Institutes of Technology are being encouraged to break out of their isolation and develop a more cross discipline approach to their programmes and to “engage with a much wider universe of knowledge, both at undergraduate and post graduate levels. We can then look forward to the day when IITs and IIMs would be producing scholars in literature, linguistics and politics along with engineering and management wizards who would have substantial motivation for engagement with the local community, and the opportunity to use and enhance learning by solving real-life problems in their immediate environment”. Yash Pal Report of The Committee to advise on Renovation and Rejuvenation of Higher Education, June 09 see Appendix xx pageYash Pal Committee Report June 09.
The department is very interested in exploring relationships with India but lack time and resources to pursue a new relationship. If there was an International office, it could help them to develop new relationships and partnerships for the Goldsmiths Digital Studios.
5.4 Department of Art
The following post graduate programmes offered by the department have potential for India: Mphil/PhD in both Art and Curating. Their MFA Art Practice could also be interesting for mature students. Partnerships with some of the more progressive Art Galleries such as Harmony Art Foundation set up by Tina Ambani, wife of the industrialist Anil Ambani and the Arts Trust set up by Vickram Sethi in 1990to promote Contemporary Indian Art. This could also be a way of funding student bursaries.
The Art Department has strong connections with USA, Europe, Korea and Japan, the source of most of their students. The department currently does not recruit many students from India but they are very interested in working with India not least because it has one the fastest growing Art Market. They do not have any knowledge of the Indian Arts Market and would welcome education seminars and workshops to develop their knowledge and understanding of this market. They would like to know what best Arts School in India are and would like to expand their network of contacts with India through faculty exchange, teaching their programme in India and developing summer school programmes. But they need help with prospecting in India and believe an international office could help them. They do not have experience of raising funds from philanthropy but would like tap the wealthy Indian art collectors both here and in India.
Art education is growing in India with the teaching of theory and practice. Global curators come to Goldsmiths, major biennales are held in emerging economies – Brazil, China and India. Goldsmiths has the best curator programme and with the globalisation of Indian Arts, the growth of Indian Cultural Industries, developing Indian Curators is an opportunity for Goldsmiths.
5.5 Design Department
Through Terry Rosenberg, Head of Design Department, Goldsmiths has links with the National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad and the Industrial Design Centre in the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Mumbai and the Pearl Academy of Fashion. I have been unable to speak with Terry as he is on sabbatical but I thought it might be helpful to reproduce some of the ideas which emerged from his visit to India with the Warden in September 2008 in particular with the Pearl Academy of Fashion and National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad.
Pearl Academy of Fashion is an educational institution that was established by the House of Pearl Fashion Ltd. They have campuses in Delhi, Jaipur, Chennai, Bangladesh and Dubai. They are keen to work with Goldsmiths to help develop their academic staff through PhD study, staff exchange and staff development workshops, design education for schools – lobbying the government to expand curricula in Indian schools to include design and technology. It was proposed organising a joint conference or workshops. Outreach development programme with crafts industries to support practitioners in rural areas to enable them to build sustainable practices and communities.
Some of the ideas discussed with National Institute of Design (Ahmedabad) for collaboration with Goldsmiths include, staff exchange, writing in design, student exchange and collaborations, education for entrepreneurship and IICE, animation – explore animation and modelling across different fields of practice, design education for schools and the creation of network of design institutions.
The areas for collaboration discussed with both Pearl Academy and National Institute of Design can be extended to other similar institutions such as Jaipur Rugs, Anokhi Contemporary Crafted Textiles in Jaipur, Indian Institutes of Technology.
5.6 Centre for Cultural Studies
The Centre for Cultural Studies has good connections with MudraInstitute of Communications, Ahmedabad. Similarly in Pune with a private college called SymbiosisInstitute of Business Management (SIBM), who are specialising in Media Studies and Cultural Industries. There is some interest from Film Studies department of Jodhpur University in setting up joint programme and want to develop a strong Film Studies programme.
The department also has strong links with Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, CSDS through Ashish Nandy, and a former Goldsmiths PhD student and at present, Senior Fellow and Director of the CSDS. Through this, the Centre for Cultural Studies also developed links with Sarai which is a programme of the CSDS.
Both Professor John Hutnyk and Dr Bhaskar Mukhopandhyay are extensively networked with universities in India but these relationships are on a personal level and need to be institutionalised for the benefit of the institution.
The Centre for Cultural Studies offers some very interesting and relevant programmes for India’s growing culture sectors in particular MA in Cultural Studies and Culture Industry, MA in Interactive Media: Critical Theatre and Practice is very marketable to India’s emerging new media sector as it moves beyond the outsourcing model to developing intellectual property. The newly launched MA in post colonial culture and global policy aimed at senior management of NGO can be marketed to India’s 3rd sector, one of largest in the world.
5.7 Department of Psychology
The department’s links with India are through Dr Joydeep Bhattacharya. The main existing collaboration is with Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. This is a two year joint research project with funding from Science Technology a government department. The project includes three month allowance for Dr Joydeep Bhattacharya to visit the Institute but does not allow for exchange. There is also a growing interest from Allahabad, new centre for brain and cognitive sciences. A professor from the university came to the UK on an exchange grant to UCL and visited Goldsmiths. He then invited Dr Joydeep Bhattacharya to speak at his centre in Allahabad which has led to discussion about collaboration. The relationships are subjective, person to person but not institutionalised.
In June, the department received the Chancellor from Hyderabad Institute, where they have a new cognitive centre. Following presentation about the department, they expressed strong interest in developing collaboration projects and this was followed by another visit by the Vice Chancellor who was given similar presentation. Both the visits were co-ordinated by Philip Broadhead.
India is important for the department from a research perspective because they have very large pool of good quality, highly intelligent and committed research students. The department receives applications from research students but the lack of funding opportunities means they lose the best to the USA who is able to offer funding. Those who are able to secure loans in India come to the UK but there are the 2nd and 3rd tier Research Students.
For the department, access to the best research students is very important and Goldsmiths needs to find ways of attracting the best of Indian research students for the department. This can enhance the reputation of Goldsmiths and raise its brand which is not known in India. Goldsmiths can also tap the good professors in India which can help with word of mouth promotion of the brand. Another is to use the post graduate students as ambassadors. Teaching exchange programmes would also help to attract both professor and research students as well offers of fellowships and scholarships.
5.8 Department of Anthropology
The work of the Anthropology department is well known in India, in particular with Delhi School of Economics where the Sociology department is dominated by anthropologists. The potential of deepening these relationships was explored by the Warden and follow-up actions outlined in his report on the visit to India from 12-20thSeptember 2008. He found a good deal of potential synergy with the Delhi School Economics including:
The department does not have many Indian students. LSC and SOAS, Oxford and Cambridge are the first option for most Indian students who want to study Anthropology in the UK. But they recognise engaging with India is important and are looking to develop their relationships here and in Brazil. Organising seminar series for the academic staff about the new markets and opportunities would be good idea.
Beyond the personal relations and contacts, Goldsmiths does not have a real presence or focus on India in the way that it has with for example Japan and Korea where the Goldsmiths brand and identity is spread by the former students.
5.9 Department of English & Comparative Literature
Through Dr Uttara Natarajan in ECL, Goldsmiths can develop its links in South India including University of Madras and Stella Maris College, which is affiliated to the University of Madras. She thinks there are two areas for potential collaboration between Goldsmiths and the education institutions in South India: Creative Writing where Goldsmiths has strong reputation in poetry and fiction; Contemporary Arts which is booming in India. Partnership opportunities exist with Stella Maris College who are developing their creative writing department and Lalit Kala Academy, Madras who are developing an artist in residence programme for South Indian Artist.
Madras University she thinks would be open to developing joint summer school programmes. Similarly relationships with College of Arts and Crafts in Madras can be explored. She would be willing to facilitate introductions but she does not have links with the Goldsmiths Arts Department who she perceives may be rather eurocentric.
6.1 UKIERE and Leadership Development Network
Goldsmiths is member of Leadership Development Network of Chancellors and Vice Chancellors from Indian Universities and UK universities. This programme came out of the UKIERI set up by the former Prime Minister, Tony Blair. The India UK University Network is facilitated by Leadership Foundation for Higher Education. The India UK Leadership Development Network Programme includes 15 Universities from India and 15 from the UK. They are matched by size, specialism and geographical location. It was set up with the aim of sharing experience and governance practice but very soon it was apparent there was very little to be learned from each other’s governance practice and the brief was broadened. In the UK the Network was facilitated by Professor Nirmala Rao who worked as an Advisor to the Leadership Foundation. Each UK University was paired with an Indian university and first meeting was organised in India at the end of March 09.
Goldsmiths was paired with University of Hyderabad because its Research interests linked well with the Psychology department. Goldsmiths is represented by Dr Philip Broadhead, who attended the first meeting in Delhi, hosted by National University of Education, Planning and Administration. The meeting was held over two days with 30 participants, with series of presentations and workshops to explore areas of mutual interest and collaboration.
Dr Philip Broadhead then visited University of Hyderabad for a tour of the campus and meetings with heads of departments. He also met with Osmania University who expressed interest in Goldsmiths programmes. The other Indian University who has expressed interest of working with Goldsmiths is North Eastern Hill University.
The second meeting of the India UK Leadership Development Network Programme was held in SOAS, over two days in June 09. The same people attended, allowing for continuity and deepening of the relationships. During this visit, the Chancellor and Vice Chancellor of University of Hyderabad came to Goldsmiths and heard presentations from the Psychology Department. University of Hyderabad also expressed keen interest in Goldsmiths Media and Communication Department as they are developing their own programme in this area. But no presentation was made by Media and Communications to the visiting Chancellor or Vice Chancellor as the Head of Department was away, but they did meet a member of the department.
Hyderabad University is a prestigious university, ranks itself after JNU, have huge development plans and is cash rich. Both Goldsmiths and University of Hyderabad agree there is potential for collaboration but need to agree on the project. Each is waiting for the other to take the initiative and they are locked in a circular discussion with each waiting for the other to define the nature of the collaboration and development of projects which can be developed jointly.
Who should drive this forward at Goldsmiths? Dr Philip Broadhead is of the opinion he can only facilitate the connection and it is up to the Researchers to develop the meaningful dialogue. This requires an investment of time and resources. The danger is Goldsmiths could be missing out on opportunities as Indian universities can quite easily source this from other universities who are more aggressive in their approach to consolidating relationships.
Leadership Development Network has provided Goldsmiths an entry point into India, but what is missing is a strategy and policy framework within which to take it forward for mutual benefit. Philip Broadhead is of the opinion that Goldsmiths given its size and reputation, should focus on, research, post graduate programme and find the discipline match. Like Philip Broadhead, most academic staff would advocate and support a more focussed approach to building relationships in India, identifying key departments, disciplines and programmes.
6.2 Marketing, Recruitment and Communications
The marketing, student recruitment and communications functions have recently been merged into this Department. Student recruitment is the face of Goldsmiths and their key job is to deliver students from UK and internationally. They have an extensive network of relationships expanding High Schools, Universities, Funding, Government, Cultural, Business, and Research. The British Council is a major gateway to accessing international students through the promotional conferences programme entitled Going Global.
In India they work with a Representative who will promote university and assist students with applying to foreign universities. The Representatives receive a commission on student fees. The department works with four such representatives in India. The department is not getting a warm reception in India, their sense is that India is fed up with the marketing and recruitment approach and wants to see more collaboration and partnership initiatives.
The new department is also responsible for press, PR, internal communications, and publications and publishing. The department manages the Open Days and Widening Participation working with local community organisations and networks such as Aspire Network, Open Book Project to encourage young people into higher education. Goldsmiths has a reputation for high PR and press coverage given its size but they would like to get more international coverage of their activities. The department is a member of a press cuttings service called Melt Water and Google Alert. Good stories, especially of student success, graduation ceremonies, awards and academic research findings are good press and PR. These are promoted on the webpage, through press release, ENews letter, radio and academic networks. The marketing function of the department is under review to develop a strategy which connects the different functions for maximum impact both nationally and internationally.
The department would welcome a strategic approach to Goldsmiths international activities but it needs to be embedded in Goldsmiths to promote greater connectivity, cross department working and sharing of resources. At present it is difficult to access information about the academic relationships and a better system of mapping these relationships needs to be developed. The academic staff also needs to see the value of such a centralised approach.
Goldsmiths needs to develop an evidence based approach to its international activities and align its offerings to the needs of the markets. An international strategy in her views needs to be evidence based addressing questions like “why do students choose Goldsmiths and why do they turn them down”, understanding of the student experience, analysis of the international markets, feedback from focus groups and analysis of the British Council data.
The current international functions including international admissions, student recruitment, and student services could be co-located so they support each other’s functions, capabilities and leverage the networks for the benefit of the institutions as a whole. This would also enable the department to produce a more robust marketing and communications strategy for accessing international students.
A regular review of Goldsmiths portfolio of programmes would also enable the department to produce a more systematic approach to marketing these programmes to the international markets. The department would like to produce research on the international markets to determine which markets is the right fit for Goldsmiths to target for strategic and sustainable partnerships. The current structure of the international function is flat and needs to be properly coordinated and resourced.
7.1 Consolidating the Goldsmiths Indian Network
Goldsmiths should consider systematising the many adhoc personal relationships between academic staff and to develop a more structured approach to engaging and maintaining the relationships so that they work in the interest of the organisation and not just the individual. The Centre for Cultural Studies, Anthropology, and Psychology and to some extent Media and Communications and Design have extensive network of relationships with universities in India. These are mainly personal research links, developed over years of networking through the academic conference circuit.
More recently Professor John Hutnyk received a HRAC Beyond Text Reward which has enabled them to include some academics from India to be part of this network. The first meeting was held in Goldsmiths and the second in Berlin and the third meeting will take place in Copenhagen later this year. A number of Indian academics and filmmakers are attending.
Several academics from Goldsmiths are also invited as speakers to conferences and seminars organised by Indian universities, examples include Dr Joydeep Bhattacharya and Professor John Hutnyk, Centre for Cultural Studies. One such recent event was a conference organised by Research Network on Indian Television. Professor John Hutnyk was invited to present a paper and to participate in the conference held in Shimla in June 09. Peter Lee-Wright is currently planning a trip to India to meet with TIS – Tata Institute of Social Sciences. He is looking at “images of poverty” and looking to raise an HRAC grant to support this work.
Goldsmiths staff has the experience and contacts but no forum in which to share good practice. There is also a reluctance to share because these are personal contacts. There is an urgent need to move the personal contacts and relationships into a more strategic approach. Goldsmiths has strong robust intellectual links which can be institutionalised for joint programmes and the delivery of Partnerships.
The follow up to the India relationships is weak. Many of the academics are not aware of the report produced by the Warden following his visit to India in September 08, others have commented on the lack of follow up to the visit by the Chancellor and Vice Chancellor of Hyderabad University.
7.2 Student Funding to increase student numbers
The opportunities are immense but lack of funding often prevents Indian students from applying to Goldsmiths. Most departments do receive applications from Indian students and offer them places which are often not taken up due to lack of funds. Money is the biggest stumbling block to attracting first class students as currently Goldsmiths does not offer substantial scholarships for foreign students.
Goldsmiths will need to address the central issues of how to enable the Indian students to acquire foreign degrees without incurring the prohibitive expenses of foreign education offshore. It will need to consider the different methods of engagement with India from the development of joint programmes, joint degree provision and the long term faculty exchange programmes already developed by other universities.
Another solution to attracting MA and PhD students from India, Bangladesh and Pakistan is to put in place a scholarship scheme. Goldsmiths can also proactively market itself in these countries through events, seminars and conferences both in UK and India. The emergence of second tier cities in India offers new opportunities for growth and could be source of funding provided the needs of the institutions are aligned.
Goldsmiths can also use its UK and Indian alumni network to promote the brand and attract new patrons from the wealthy who are increasingly viewing the creative disciplines as a career option for their children.
There is growing competition from other UK universities and Colleges such as Kings College, Cambridge University and Westminster College, who are better known brands in India and are leveraging their alumni networks and academic relationships to market their brands in India. Detailed account of how these and other UK higher education and training institutes are engaging with India is set out on page xxx. Goldsmiths brand is not known in India where both students and financiers tend to go for the brand. Goldsmiths needs to take the message direct to India through showcasing its programmes, people and facilities.
7.4 Staff Education about the challenges and opportunities of working with India
Staff understanding about India and its contemporary creative and cultural industries is limited. There are three scholars specialising on China at Goldsmiths but none on India. Doing business in India requires a deep understanding of the culture, values and ways of working.
7.5 Developing an International Strategy
There is overwhelming agreement amongst the academic staff that Goldsmiths needs to have a strategy, long term commitment and allocate the resources for its international activities. The goals should be to enhance Goldsmiths international reputation and to internationalise its activities including its curriculum and research activities. “We need to know where we are going as an academic institution. Goldsmiths has to have an international aspect in the immediate and we need to be in areas of biggest growth which clearly is India, China and other emerging economies. Goldsmiths has to leverage its “smallness” and punch above its weight”. Philip Broadhead
But in so doing, Goldsmiths must maintain its quirky, edgy, brash, loud, interesting, different, radical ideas led approach. This is what makes it different from the other universities and why students are attracted to come here.
The international strategy needs to be linked to the business plan of the organisation but informed by intellectual credibility and sustainability. Goldsmiths needs to put in place the infrastructure, educate and train its staff to the value of the international work. Internally, the potential of such relationship needs to be sold to Goldsmiths Academics, they need to be motivated, shown the opportunities, the value to them and their departments and the engagement needs to be made exciting. The Staff need to see that Goldsmiths as an institution values these relationship and they are long term and sustainable. As one academic put it, Goldsmiths need to “speculate in order to accumulate”.
Many are weary of signing MOU’s which are not meaningful. They would like to see a more centralised approach to international development but it should be done for the right reasons. Student recruitment should not be the sole driver for such a strategy. Goldsmiths did have an International Office in 2003 but it was closed, on the assumption that International can take care of itself and Student Recruitment could take care of getting students into the College. More recently SMT set up two internal groups one for India and one for China. This was because Goldsmiths was in financial trouble and International was seen as a way out.
Goldsmiths has already done a considerable amount of thinking and work around developing its international strategy with a number of papers being presented to SMT for consideration including Developing an International Strategy: Discussion Paper, Internationalising Goldsmiths and The Warden’s Report on his visit to India 12th-20thSeptember 2008, where he held meetings with Chancellors in a number of universities. This report builds on this work and many of the ideas have already been discussed by the academic staff and senior management team.
7.6 Establish an International Office
Having an International Office is good idea, only if it did something and not just adds another layer of bureaucracy. Many academic expressed concern about an International Department because they are perceived as “junkets”. International promotion should lead to intellectual merit and help establish Goldsmiths credibility. If it can help to streamline and facilitate the work that is already being done by the individual departments, than it’s a good thing. An example of a centralised department which does both is the Research Office, they help to make application and manage the applications process.
Many argue this can only be achieved through a centralised administration which is properly resourced. An International Partnership Office can facilitate, help pool information and resources, support the academic staff with developing proposals for international grant applications, and follow up on the meetings and delegations and find new research activities for long term sustainable relationships which are institutionalised. The centre can facilitate the connections and support partnership management. Building relationships in emerging countries like India is a slow burn and it can take up to 2-3 years to build meaningful relationships to establish long term partnerships.
An International Partnership Office can set the policy framework for the development of joint degrees, faculty and student exchange programmes, joint research projects, co-ordinating visiting scholars, delegation and fellowships. Currently there is the embarrassing situation of who pays for lunch and who is hosting the delegation. The International Office can also work with other international functions such as student welfare, student recruitment. The International Office can encourage greater cross department collaboration.
There needs to be a step change from the organic approach to a more business approach with the SMT and Academic staff working together for both short and long term returns. The International Partnership Office can help provide this focus if it is properly resourced and managed.
8.1 Regulatory environment
The complex regulatory environment is undoubtedly the largest barrier to entry. This is being addressed by the current Government and the private education sectors who are calling for more transparent and straightforward regulatory system.
The UK norms for communication are very different from the Indian norms. In India much faith is placed on face to face interaction and also moving quickly. Indian business people tend to devote their attention to issues intensely over short periods whereas in the UK it is often normal to give limited attention to an issue but sustain communication over a longer time period. The mobile phone is used much more in India and also hours of work are much more loosely defined so that much business gets done in the evenings and over weekends. This means that when the Indian partner devotes their attention to an issue they will often be in touch very frequently and will expect very swift responses often out of hours. They may then go quiet for long periods when they devote their attention to other issues. They also place much less faith in email than in UK.
Establishing an effective partnership is a long term investment – it can easily take 18 months. Bearing in mind the different communication styles, it is often different to match expectations and keep both partners on track over these periods.
Partnershipswith India need to be seen over the longer term. Trust is necessary and attention should be given to building this in the initial stages of the interaction. This will mean considerable face to face contact and social interaction, vital to the success of projects. It is necessary to understand, without judgement, the very different styles of doing business between the two countries. It is often assumed that we share many cultural similarities but this can hide the very real differences too. UK contacts need to consider how they can make themselves easily accessible to their partners – usually by sharing a mobile number and being responsive to different sorts of communication. They will need to consider how to better react to the contrasting working styles they meet.
There are different expectations on the jurisdiction of agreements under UK or Indian law. It is essential to work with both Indian and UK lawyers. On matters of pricing and legal jurisdiction these are best dealt with by frank and robust interactions but based on principles of equity – be prepared to be flexible on some factors but respond by being robust on other factors.
The market situation is very different in India to UK. Lower prices are the norm and consumers are very value conscious but not necessarily cost conscious. India knows how to do business and will drive a hard bargain. Payment timescales are long and far exceed the UK norms.
8.7 Geographical Distance
The distance between the two markets is an actual physical barrier. Some UK universities are looking at the use of Video Conferencing facility in order to enable continuing face-to-face communications between partner organisations having undertaken initial visits. The costs of travel, whilst not onerous, can be a stumbling block in the development of relationships with distant countries and financial support, even if limited to travel costs etc, is vital.
8.8 Funding for Business Development
Many of the UK education institutions are publically funded and therefore reliant on obtaining funding to undertake international work. This is limiting as there is not necessarily access to monies for exploratory work prior to any initiatives. If the university is serious about engaging with the Indian education sector, than some funding has to be allocated for exploratory work and the staff trained to develop their skills to succeed in India.
8.9 Market Intelligence
There is often inadequate detailed knowledge of the Indian market, the economic growth story, and drivers for success, new trade opportunities, trends and development on the ground based on research, trade statistics and economic forecasting. This basic understanding is essential for developing a market entry strategy for anyone looking to do business in India.
Indians are master networkers and business gets done through an extraordinary web of networks. They are also sector agnostic – motivated by the next opportunity. The leaders of the IT sector are now investing heavily into the education sector just as they have done in growing the new media sector. The major corporate are amongst the biggest investors in Higher Education sectors. India is driven by entrepreneurs and networking is their lifeline. The key to succeeding in India is through being part of the right networks in the private sector and with governments. All decisions are centralised and any dialogue needs to begin with CEO and Chairman, in the case of universities it’s the Chairman, Chancellor and Vice Chancellors who can take decisions.
8.11 Government Priorities
It is vital to understand the Indian government’s priorities and policies and to align the propositions.
9.1 UK government has recognised the importance of India’s growing education sector and has developed a number of initiatives to help position the UK higher education institutions and the many skills and training providers in this market. These include the UK India Education and Research Initiative (UKIERI)launched by the former Prime Minster, Tony Blair; Leadership Development Network of Indian and UK universities; UK Indian Skills Forum and UK India Higher Education Forum, both facilitated by UKT&I and UK India Business Council UKIBC. Goldsmiths is already a member of Leadership Development Network and can broaden its network by engaging with some of the other initiatives described below.
9.2 UK India Education and Research Initiative (UKIERI)
UK India Education and Research Initiative (UKIERI)is a five year programme, launched by former Prime Minister Tony Blair, which aims to substantially improve educational links between India and the UK. The three main strands of the initiative are: Higher Education and Research, Schools and Professional and Technical Skills. The initiative has also given a platform for high level dialogue between UK and India on areas of mutual policy interests such as quality assurance, international standards and credit recognition schemes. To date, UKIERI has committed over £20 million to support hundreds of bilateral partnerships between India and the UK. In recognition of the success of the UKIERI programme an additional £3 million has been allocated by the UK Government to UKIERI. The additional funds are being utilised to fund an additional round of higher education research awards and to launch two new programmes i.e. Study India Programme for UK undergraduates and India Graduate Work Experience Programme for Indian graduates.
The private sector has added significantly to this contribution through the 3 corporate champions BAE, GSK and Shell. Along with these three, BP extended support to UKIERI as a corporate Champion from 2006-2009 and are now actively engaged with the schools strand under UKIERI.
The criticism of UKIERI, which is currently under review, is that it was too narrowly defined with focus on science and technology. British Council and UKIERI Consortium would like to see it expand its focus from subjects and disciplines to include themes such as faculty development, widening participation, schools, public-private partnerships, quality and regulatory framework.
The opportunities of leveraging the UKIERI initiatives for the benefit of Goldsmiths are discussed in the Wardens Report following his visit to India where he discussed a number of ideas with the British Council.
9.3 Leadership Development Network
Goldsmiths is a member of the India UK University Network which is facilitated by Leadership Foundation for Higher Education. The India UK Leadership Development Network Programme includes 15 Universities from India and 15 from the UK. They are matched by size, specialism and geographical location.
It was set up with the aim of sharing experience and governance practice but very soon it was apparent there was very little to be learned from each other’s governance practice and the brief was broadened. In the UK the Network was facilitated by Professor Nirmala Rao who worked as an Advisor to the Leadership Foundation. Each UK University was paired with an Indian university and first meeting was organised in India at the end of March 09 which was followed by a second meeting held in London in June 09.
9.4 UKIBC and UKT&I Higher Education Forum
UKIBC are producing a report on the higher education sectors for presentation at the forthcoming FICCI Higher Education Summit. Goldsmiths have been invited to join the Higher Education Forum and to participate in the FICCI Higher Education Summit to be held in Delhi in November 09. The FICCI Higher Education Summit is an opportunity to engage with senior government and private sector representatives on the future of the Indian Education sector, to network and build relationships for potential partnerships. This is also an opportunity for Goldsmiths to present is unique qualities.
UK Higher Education Institutions are beginning to engage with India and here are some examples of the approach taken by UK HE providers towards the Indian market including:
10.1 University of Edinburgh
University of Edinburgh staff has been successful in securing UKIERI funding for projects during two successive allocations of funding and recent activities between the University and India have included:
The University’s broader strategic aim is to increase its international student cohort by 1,000 by the year 2012 and invariably, India will be of critical importance to this aim. University’s particular interests in India are:
To manage their partner relationships, Edinburgh University have appointed a Liaison Officer to facilitate greater access to information networks and opportunities, developing links with industry and support in harnessing sources of funding to facilitate joint projects in India.
10.2 The Centre for India & Global Business at Judge Business School, University of Cambridge
The Centre for India & Global Business was established in 2008 with financial support from the BP Foundation and is headed by Professor Jaideep Prabhu, the recently appointed Jawaharlal Nehru Professor of Indian Business and Enterprise. The Centre acts as a platform for research and engagement with key partners in industry, academia and policy in India, the UK and across the world. Its primary focus is to understand, promote, and engage with innovators on India’s leading role in the global knowledge economy. The Centre will conduct research and engage with key partners in the following strategic areas:
10.3 The Centre for Indian Cultures at Kings College London
King’s College London wants to lead a transformation in the Western understanding of Indian art, new media, and cultural practices. They are introducing a new MA in Contemporary Indian Studies and aspire to be the top destination in Europe for Indian Studies by 2013. They are also creating an endowed Chair in Indian Cinema.
10.4 University of Greenwich, Centre for Indian Business
University of Greenwich has established the Centre for Indian Business within the University to provide easy access to knowledge and understanding of the Indian business world and it also acts as a hub where people can network, discuss and access a wealth of information about India. The centre works closely with institutions, industry and its communities to forge strong and mutually beneficial knowledge links with Indian business and business education through the centre into UK and Europe. The centre is situated within the Business School at the University of Greenwich and draws on its expertise in generating and applying practical knowledge, as well as new and innovative techniques, to business needs.
The centre willorganiseregular seminars and conferences to promote knowledge sharing and build communities of practice that can benefit from the networking and exchange of ideas and information. Current projects and partner relationships in India include:
The Institute of Management Technology (IMT)
The Centre for Indian Businesses is working with IMT on a research project on the future of Indian Management Education and an international conference on brand management in January 2010. IMT was established in 1980. In the last 28 years IMT has been consistently ranked among the top management institutes in the country. Today, IMT is widelyrecognisedas a centre for excellence in management education, quality research and for its strong industry interface.
Malaviya National Institute of Technology MNIT
MNIT and The University of Greenwich won a UK India Education and Research Initiative (UKIERI) award in autumn 2008 to develop a joint MBA in Technology Management, launched in August 2009. The two institutions also plan to develop a number of joint research programmers in the following areas: civil and structural engineering and power electronics.
Malaviya National Institute of Technology MNIT was established in 1963 as a joint venture of the Government of India and the Government of Rajasthan named as Malaviya Regional Engineering College, Jaipur. At present it is an Institute of National Importance, declared by an act of Parliament, named as Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur and fully funded by Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India. The Institute offers undergraduate, postgraduate and PhDprogrammesin the areas of Engineering, Technology, Management, Science and Humanities.
The University of Greenwich and Apeejay Institute of Technology won a joint UK India Education and Research Initiative (UKIERI) award in autumn 2008 to develop a joint MBA Executive Management also launched in August 2009. The two institutions also plan to develop a number of joint researchprogrammesin a range of management issues.
Apeejay Institute of Technology (AIT), campus at Greater Noida, is an integral part of Apeejay Education. The institute offers a range of full-timeprogrammesunder three schools – School of Management (PGDM-General and PGDM – Banking and Finance); School of Computer Science (MCA & PGDM-IT) and School of Architecture and Planning and conducts research in the diverse fields of Management and Technology. Apeejay Institute of Technology has over 1,000 students in its managementprogrammesat its various institutions.
The University of Greenwich and ITM Universe won a joint UK India Education and Research Initiative (UKIERI) award in autumn 2007 to develop a joint MBA in International Business which was launched in March 2009 and an MBA in Technology Management which will be launched in August 2009.
· The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI)
FICCI and the Centre signed a Memorandum of Understanding on 10 June 2009 to work together on the following:
· Partnership in FICCI’s annual HE Summit.
· Dissemination of FICCI reports through the Centre for Indian Business newsletter.
The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) was set up in 1927, under the inspiration of Mahatma Gandhi, and today represents over 250,000 enterprises, and 400 Chambers and Associations spread across India. FICCI collaborates with apex business bodies in over 79 countries through which it conducts its `track two’ business diplomacy.
10.5 Walsall College
Walsall College plans to work with Saint Baba Bhag Singh Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jalandhar to develop IT skills at two levels: Firstly, to improve the base level of key competences of trainees of the Institute through the delivery of foundation level programmes in India and available from the College’s Microsoft and Apple Academies. Secondly, in the development of accredited and validated courses in the field of product design and rapid prototyping along with their industrial partners, Delcam.
Walsall College has submitted a project proposal with the North Indian Institute of Fashion Technology (NIIFT) in Mohali within the UKIERI programme to deliver new curriculum initiatives in the field of Fashion and Textiles. The proposal relates to the new ‘cutting edge’ developments of ‘smart’ textiles and new methods of digital printing onto textiles developed by Roland and delivered by training courses in their Roland Academy in Walsall. The College aim is to facilitate a sustainable programme of development and mutual enrichment of the curricula through activities linked to:
10.6 Leeds City College
Leeds City College has established a growing partnership with the National Insurance Academy in Pune. Staff from both partner organisations has visited India and the UK, accompanied by senior employer representatives from the Insurance industries in both countries (HSBC in the UK and the Life Insurance Corporation and General Insurance Corporation of India). There is college-wide discussions on future project ideas including the development of distance learning packages to support the insurance industry in India; e-learning provision for insurance agents.
In October 2009 Leeds City College will host a visit to the UK by six MBA students from the NIA and, through a supported work placement in a relevant organisation; the students will gain experience of the UK insurance sector in action. The work placement will be underpinned by a programme of seminars, guest speakers, industry visits to further expand and develop the students’ knowledge and skills. Leeds City College is keen to develop in the insurance and financial services sectors in India, promoting distance and e-learning.
UKIBC and UKT&I have formed a group called the UK India Skills Forum which seeks to feed the views of UK skills and training providers into the Government to Government negotiations about market access in the sector, and helps to identify potential Indian partnerorganisations. The Group met in April 09 and produced a paper outlining the intentions and capacity with regard to India of a number of vocational skills providers. This document was circulated at the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) Skills Summit in April 09. A number of UK vocational skills providers attended this summit with a view to identifying potential Indian partners and furthering their India operations. Copy of this document is attached as Appendix 3.
12.1 Appendix 1: Indian Education Sector: Size, Value, Growth, Trends and Opportunities
India’s US$40b education market is experiencing a surge in investment. Capital, both local and international, and innovative legal structures are changing the face of this once-staid sector
The liberalisation of India’s industrial policy in 1991 was the catalyst for a wave of investment in IT and infrastructure projects. Rapid economic growth followed, sparking a surge in demand for skilled and educated workers. This, combined with the failure of the public system to provide high quality education and the growing willingness of the burgeoning middle class to spend money on schooling, has transformed India’s education sector into an attractive and fast-emerging opportunity for foreign investment.
Size and Value of the Indian Education Sector
The Indian government allocated about US$8.6 billion to education for the current financial year. The private investors are flocking to play a part in the “education revolution”. Indeed, it is estimated that the scope for private participation is almost five times the amount spent on education by the government. A recent report by CLSA (Asia-Pacific Markets) estimated that the private education market is worth around US$40 billion. The K-12 segment alone, which includes students from kindergarten to the age of 17, is thought to be worth more than US$20 billion. The market for private colleges (engineering, medical, business, etc.) is valued at US$7 billion while tutoring accounts for a further US$5 billion.
Other areas such as test preparation, pre-schooling and vocational training are worth US$1-2 billion each. Textbooks and stationery, educational CD-ROMs, multimedia content, child skill enhancement, e-learning, teacher training and finishing schools for the IT and the BPO sectors are some of the other significant sectors for foreign investment in education.
CLSA estimates that the total size of India’s private education market could reach US$70 billion by 2012, with an 11% increase in the volume and penetration of education and training being offered.
Private initiatives in the education sector started in the mid-90s with public-private partnerships set up to provide information and communications technology (ICT) in schools. Private companies such as Educomp Solutions, Everonn Systems, and NIIT were among the first to enter the ICT market, which is expected to be worth around US$1 billion by 2012. Recently, the central government invited private participation in over 1,000 of its industrial training institutes and offered academic and financial autonomy to private players. Companies such as Tata, Larsen & Toubro, Educomp and Wipro have shown keen interest in participating in this initiative.
Companies such as Educomp Solutions, Career Launcher, NIIT, Aptech, and Magic Software, are market leaders in these fields. Educomp recently acquired a large number of educational institutes and service providers across India. It has also formed joint ventures with leading higher education groups, including Raffles Education Singapore, for the establishment of higher education institutions and universities in India and China. Furthermore, it has entered into multi-million dollar collaboration with Ansal Properties and Infrastructure to set up educational institutions and schools across the country and closed an US$8.5 million deal to acquire Eurokids International, a private provider of pre-school educational services in India. Gaja Capital India, an education-centric fund, has completed the funding of three education services companies in India. NIIT and Aptech, meanwhile, are engaged in the IT training business.
Education in India is regulated at both central and state government levels. As a result, regulations often differ from state to state and weaving through the complex regulatory roadmap to qualify for affiliation poses serious difficulties for investors.
While state governments are largely responsible for providing K-12 education in India, the central government is accountable for major policy decisions relating to higher education. It provides grants to the University Grants Commission (UGC) and establishes central universities in the country. The UGC coordinates, determines and maintains standards and the release of grants. Upon the UGC’s recommendation, the central government declares the status of an educational institution, which once authorized, is entitled to award degrees.
State governments are responsible for the establishment of state universities and colleges and have the power to approve the establishment of private universities through State Acts. All private universities are expected to conform to the UGC guidelines to ensure that certain minimum standards are maintained.
Professional and technical education in India is regulated by professional councils such as the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE). Established under the AICTE Act, 1987, AICTE gives recognition to courses, promotes professional institutions, provides grants to undergraduateprogrammes, and ensures the coordinated and integrated development of technical education and the maintenance of standards. The AICTE has recently exerted pressure on unrecognized private technical and management institutes to seek its approval or face closure.
Foreign Direct Investment
The sector is expected to witness a surge in foreign investment and perhaps a reduction in the number of regulatory roadblocks as a result of the central government’s enthusiasm for overseas investors. Foreign direct investment in higher education could help reduce government expenditure and there is a general consensus that education as a whole should be opened for domestic and foreign private participation.
Foreign Education Providers Bill
The entry of foreign educational institutions into India will be covered by the new Foreign Education Providers (Regulation for Entry and Operation) Bill. The bill seeks to regulate the entry and operation of foreign education providers, as well as limit the commercialization of higher education. Foreign education providers would be given the status of “deemed universities” allowing them to grant admissions and award degrees, diplomas or certificates.
Operationally, the bill proposes to bring foreign education providers under the administrative umbrella of the UGC, which would eventually regulate the admissions process and fee structures. Since these foreign institutions will have to be incorporated under central or state laws, they will also be subject to the government’s policies of reservations. The bill is pending approval from the Indian Parliament.
Despite the regulatory constraints, the Indian education sector is on a path of exponential growth. A growing number of private companies are undertaking creatively structured projects in the education business and the level of investor confidence is demonstrated by the recent spate of M&A activity that has taken place.
With more domestic players emerging, the education sector is likely to witness consolidation, but at the same time, increasing foreign participation will drive competition and raise standards. Liberalization will continue to intensify as the government struggles to remedy its poor public education system and provide quality institutions to educate India’s masses.
12.2 Appendix 2: Report of The Committee to Advise on Renovation and Rejuvenation of Higher Education by Yash Pal
YashPal Committee Report for theMinistry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) in June 09 has made some radical recommendations to the HRD Minister Kapil Sibal which if implemented have implications for the entry of foreign universities into India. The Report has recommended:
12.3 Appendix 3: FICCI Higher Education Summit
The two day summit entitled “Imperative for Higher Education: Inclusion, Expansion & Excellence will take place on 6thand 7thNovember in Delhi and address a number themes including:
12.4 Appendix 4: The Indian Media and Entertainment Sector
The Indian Media and Entertainment industry consists of Films, Music, Television, New Media, Radio, and Live Entertainment and is one of the fastest growing business sectors in India, registering a 19% growth rate. The current size of the industry is estimated at US$ 10 billion. The Indian Film industry is the world’s largest producer of films with over 1000 film per annum across 52 languages and is expected to grow at approximately 19% annually to reach $2.3bn. The film industry generates employment opportunities for up to 4 million people in India alone.
Television is the leading entertainment medium in India, expanding over 82 million households, including 37 million cable & satellite (C&S). The sector now accounts for over 60% of the industry’s revenues. Indian animation industry, currently valued at $550 million, is growing at rate of 30% resulting in a $15 billion industry by 2008 and India will receive $2 billion worth of animation business in the next three years. There is growth in new-age sectors like new media & convergence (e.g. mobile VAS),specialisedniches like B2B publications and an explosion of content through various distribution channels like DTH, IPTV and others. India has around 225 million mobile users and is adding 8 million mobile connections every month.
12.5 Appendix 5: Research and Methodology
The research brief wastoanalysethe current portfolio of relationships between Goldsmiths and institutions in India, based on the audit review already conducted and any other consultations that might arise out of this. Based on this initial research to advise the College on the development of a strategy for Indian partnerships, identifying potential partners but not at this stage opening negotiations with them.
Goldsmiths does not wish to limit the concept of partnership to any one kind of institution, but remains open to a diverse range of higher education institutions as well as business interests in (for example) film, design or games industries.
The benefits to Goldsmiths are seen as including (i) a sense that Goldsmiths is ‘on the map’ in India in our areas of expertise, and well placed to take advantage of opportunities of mutual benefit now and in the future; (ii) direct opportunities for academic collaboration in terms of research, teaching, business links and student mobility, again with an emphasis on mutual advantage to both sides; (iii) the reputational enhancement that association with leading players in India might bring.
Goldsmiths recognises that the benefits for Goldsmiths should be seen in a longer perspective: there is no expectation that in the short term increased student recruitment from India will occur. The project is intended to lead to a more structured and strategic engagement between Goldsmiths and India.
One to one meetings were held with the following Goldsmiths staff with an interest and network of relationships in India. The line of inquiry included questions about:
Meetings with Goldsmiths Staff included:
External Research and Meetings
Review of Goldsmiths International Reports
Produced by Parminder Vir OBE